Chemistry High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

To estimate the **fugitive emissions **of compound A from the valves in kg/year, we need to use the given** facility-specific **correlations and screening concentrations.

However, the specific values for valve counts, mass **fraction** VOC, mass fraction of A, and screening concentrations are missing from the question. Without these values, it is not possible to provide a numerical estimation.

To calculate the fugitive emissions using the average** SOCMI emission** factors from Table 1 and the leak/no-leak emission factors from Table 2, we would also need the emission factors **corresponding **to compound A, which are not provided in the question.

Please provide the missing values for valve counts, mass fraction VOC, mass fraction of A, and screening concentrations for compound A so that I can assist you in calculating the fugitive emissions.

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## Related Questions

if reaction starts with 20g of reactants it should produce

### Answers

If a reaction starts with 20g of reactants, the amount of product produced will depend on the **stoichiometry **of the reaction, which relates the number of moles of **reactants **to the number of moles of products.

When a chemical reaction occurs, the reactants are converted into products. The amount of product produced depends on the stoichiometry of the reaction, which relates the **number of moles **of reactants to the number of moles of products. The stoichiometry can be used to calculate the theoretical yield of the reaction, which is the maximum amount of product that can be produced based on the amount of reactants used.Theoretical yield is calculated by multiplying the number of moles of the limiting reactant by the **mole ratio of product** to limiting reactant from the balanced chemical equation. The limiting reactant is the reactant that is completely consumed in the reaction, limiting the amount of product that can be produced. The actual yield is the amount of product that is actually obtained in the reaction, which is usually less than the theoretical yield due to factors such as incomplete reactions, side reactions, and loss of product during isolation or **purification**.

Therefore, the amount of product produced when a reaction starts with 20g of reactants can be calculated using the stoichiometry of the reaction and the theoretical yield equation. The actual yield may be less than the theoretical yield due to various factors.

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is the statement ""the values for cl− wet deposition were greater during the winter and early spring when road salt is typically applied"" supported by the results of study 2 ?

### Answers

The conclusions or discussions presented in study 2 regarding the relationship between Cl- wet **deposition **and seasonal variations.

To determine if the statement is supported by the results of study 2, we need to follow a step-by-step process:

Obtain the results of study 2: Obtain the **research **paper or report detailing the results of study 2.

Identify the variables and data: Look for data related to Cl- wet deposition and its values during different seasons, specifically winter and early spring.

Analyze the data: Examine the data to see if it provides information on Cl- wet deposition values during different seasons.

Compare the values: Compare the Cl- wet deposition values during the winter and early spring to values from other seasons (e.g., summer, autumn) to determine if there is a notable difference.

Consider the findings: Review the conclusions or discussions presented in study 2 regarding the relationship between Cl- wet deposition and seasonal variations.

Check if the study supports the statement that Cl- wet deposition values are greater during the winter and early spring.

Evaluate the evidence: Assess the strength of the evidence provided by study 2. Consider factors such as sample size, **statistical **significance, and any limitations or potential biases.

Formulate a conclusion: Based on the analysis of the data and findings in study 2, determine if the statement is supported or not.

Without access to the specific results and findings of study 2, it is not possible to provide a **definitive **answer.

It is essential to consult the actual study and evaluate the evidence within its context to determine if the statement is supported.

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Carbon dioxide molecules (select all that apply)

Group of answer choices

Protect the Earth from all of the harmful Ultraviolet (UV) radiation

Absorb most of the shortwave radiation emitted from the Sun

Are one of the most abundant constituents of Earth's atmosphere

Can move in many ways, thus absorbing and emitting infrared radiation

### Answers

**Carbon dioxide molecules** can absorb and emit **infrared radiation**, and they are one of the most abundant constituents of Earth's atmosphere.

Thus, the correct options are:d) Are one of the most abundant constituents of Earth's atmospheree) Can move in many ways, thus absorbing and emitting infrared radiation

Carbon dioxide is a trace gas present in the** Earth's atmosphere**. It's a vital component of Earth's carbon cycle, which helps to regulate Earth's temperature and support life as we know it. Carbon dioxide molecules are one of the most common gases in the atmosphere, accounting for around 0.04% of the Earth's atmosphere.

The greenhouse effect is caused by carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases. When the Sun's energy reaches the Earth's surface, it is absorbed and then radiated back into space as infrared radiation. **Greenhouse gases **absorb this radiation and trap it in the atmosphere, which causes the Earth's temperature to rise and the climate to change.

Carbon dioxide molecules are capable of absorbing and emitting infrared radiation due to their** molecular structure,** which consists of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. This property of carbon dioxide is the main reason it's classified as a greenhouse gas.

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the process of weathering by dissolution is most effective on

### Answers

The process of **weathering **by dissolution is most effective on rocks that are composed of minerals that are soluble in water. **Dissolution **is a process that involves the dissolving of a mineral or rock in water, which then leads to the breakdown of the rock structure.

Limestone and other sedimentary rocks that contain** calcium carbonate** are most susceptible to weathering by dissolution. This is because calcium carbonate dissolves easily in water and is therefore quickly **eroded by water**. Other rocks such as halite, gypsum, and sylvite are also soluble in water and therefore are susceptible to weathering by dissolution. Weathering by dissolution is most effective in areas with **high rainfall** and **high humidity**, as these conditions provide the necessary moisture for the dissolution process to occur. The rate of weathering by dissolution also depends on the acidity of the water, with more acidic water causing faster dissolution.

Overall, the process of weathering by dissolution is most effective on rocks that are composed of minerals that are soluble in water, especially in areas with high rainfall and high humidity.

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The three common sources of the leavening gas carbon dioxide are:

a) Yeast, baking powder, and baking soda

b) Oxygen, water, and heat

c) Nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon

d) Sugar, salt, and vinegar

### Answers

The three common sources of the leavening gas carbon dioxide are **(a) yeast, baking powder, and baking soda.** Yeast is a fungus that ferments sugars present in flour and releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct.

The **carbon dioxide **is trapped in the dough, causing it to rise.

Baking powder is a combination of an acid, a base, and a filler, such as cornstarch. When it's added to batter or dough, it reacts with the liquid and produces carbon dioxide. This causes the batter or dough to rise.** Baking soda** is a base that reacts with acid to produce carbon dioxide. When baking soda is mixed with an acidic ingredient, such as yogurt or vinegar, carbon dioxide is produced. This causes the dough or batter to rise.

Therefore, the answer to the question is A) Yeast, baking powder, and baking soda.

The remaining answer options are incorrect because oxygen, water, and heat do not produce carbon dioxide. Nitrogen, **hydrogen**, and carbon are not sources of leavening gases. Sugar, salt, and vinegar are ingredients used in baking, but they do not produce carbon dioxide.

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what is necessary for a bond to be considered polar

### Answers

For a bond to be considered polar, the difference in electronegativity between the atoms in the **bond** must be greater than 0.4. **Electronegativity** is a measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons towards itself. A polar bond is a covalent bond where the electrons are shared unequally between the atoms involved.

Therefore, the necessary conditions for a bond to be polar are: There should be a difference in electronegativity between the atoms involved in the bond. The electronegativity difference between the **atoms** should be greater than 0.4. The atoms should be non-identical in nature. If the atoms are identical, the bond will be considered non-polar because they have the same electronegativity. For example, in a molecule of H2, the atoms have the same electronegativity so the bond is non-polar. If the atoms are different, but the difference in electronegativity is less than 0.4, then the bond will also be** non-polar**. For example, in a **molecule** of CO2, the difference in electronegativity between the carbon and oxygen atoms is less than 0.4 so the bonds are non-polar.

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which compounds do not have the same empirical formula?

### Answers

Compounds can have different **empirical** formulas if the ratio of their elements is not the same. To identify which compounds do not have the same empirical formula, we need to compare the ratios of elements in each compound.

The empirical formula of a compound represents the simplest ratio of elements present in the compound. For compounds to have the same empirical formula, the ratios of their elements must be equal.

To determine which compounds do not have the same empirical formula, we need to compare the ratios of elements in each compound. This can be done by analyzing the chemical formulas of the compounds.

For example, let's consider two compounds, Compound A with the formula** C2H4O** and Compound B with the formula **CH2O.** To find their empirical formulas, we simplify the ratios of elements. In Compound A, the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 2:4:1, which simplifies to **C1H2O0.5.** In Compound B, the ratio is 1:2:1, which simplifies to CH2O.

By comparing the simplified ratios, we can see that the empirical formulas of Compound A and Compound B are different. Therefore, these compounds do not have the same empirical formula.

In conclusion, to identify compounds that do not have the same empirical formula, we need to compare the ratios of elements in each compound. If the ratios are not equal, the compounds will have different empirical formulas.

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2.2 Consider a cubic silicon single crystal having a lattice parameter 0.54 nm. Determine the following for this crystal: (a) The zone axis for the (111), (112), and (001) planes. (b) The angle between the (111) and (112) planes. (c) The inter-planar distance between the {112}.

### Answers

(a) The **zone axis** for (111) plane is a line that passes through the origin and is perpendicular to the (111) plane

For the (112) plane, the zone axis is a line that passes through the origin and is parallel to the face diagonal of the crystal lattice

For the (001) plane, the zone axis is a line parallel to the plane and perpendicular to the crystal lattice.

(b)The **angle between** the (111) and (112) planes is approximately 35.26°.

(c) The **inter-planar distance** between the {112} planes is approximately 0.157 nm.

(a) Zone axis:

The zone axis for the (111) plane is a line that passes through the origin and is perpendicular to the (111) plane. It represents the direction along which the crystal lattice repeats itself. For the (112) plane, the zone axis is a line that passes through the origin and is parallel to the face diagonal of the crystal lattice. For the (001) plane, the zone axis is a line parallel to the plane and perpendicular to the crystal lattice.

(b) Angle between the (111) and (112) planes:

To find the angle between the (111) and (112) planes, we can use the formula:

cos(θ) = (h1h2 + k1k2 + l1l2) / (sqrt(h1^2 + k1^2 + l1^2) * sqrt(h2^2 + k2^2 + l2^2))

Given that the **Miller indices** for the (111) plane are (1, 1, 1) and for the (112) plane are (1, 1, 2), we can substitute these values into the formula:

cos(θ) = (11 + 11 + 1*2) / (sqrt(1^2 + 1^2 + 1^2) * sqrt(1^2 + 1^2 + 2^2))

cos(θ) = 7 / (sqrt(3) * sqrt(6))

Taking the inverse cosine of both sides, we find:

θ = cos^(-1)(7 / (sqrt(3) * sqrt(6)))

Therefore, the angle between the (111) and (112) planes is approximately 35.26°.

(c) Inter-planar distance between the {112} planes:

To calculate the **inter-planar distance**, we can use Bragg's law:

nλ = 2d * sin(θ)

Where n is the order of the reflection, λ is the **wavelength **of the X-ray, d is the inter-planar distance, and θ is the angle between the incident X-ray beam and the crystal plane.

For the {112} planes, the Miller indices are (1, 1, 2). Assuming a typical X-ray wavelength of 1.54 Å (0.154 nm), and using the angle θ calculated in part (b), we can solve for the inter-planar distance, d:

0.154 nm = 2d * sin(35.26°)

d = 0.154 nm / (2 * sin(35.26°))

Therefore, the inter-planar distance between the {112} planes is approximately 0.157 nm.

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For the following equations which define the behaviour of the technology level:

In At = A + gt +At

At = rhoAA~t−1+ϵA,t,−1a) Express lnA1, lnA2, and lnA3 in terms of lnA0, εA,1, εA,2, and εA,3.

b) Calculate the expected values of lnA1, lnA2 and lnA3 taking as constants , lnA0, rhoA and g.

### Answers

To express lnA1, lnA2, and lnA3 in terms of lnA0, εA,1, εA,2, and εA,3, we can use the given **equations**: From the equation At = A + gt + At, we can rewrite it as At - gt = A + At. Taking the natural logarithm (ln) of both sides, we have ln(At - gt) = ln(A + At).

Similarly, from the equation At = rhoAA~t−1 + ϵA,t,−1, we can rewrite it as At - rhoAA~t−1 = ϵA,t,−1. Taking the natural **logarithm** (ln) of both sides, we have ln(At - rhoAA~t−1) = ln(ϵA,t,−1). Now, let's express lnA1, lnA2, and lnA3 in terms of ln A0, εA,1, εA,2, and εA,3. Expressing lnA1:

- From equation 1, we have ln(A1 - g1t) = ln(A0 + A1).

**Rearranging** the equation, we get ln(A1 - g1t) - ln(A1) = ln(A0).

- From equation 2, we have ln(A1 - rhoAA~1−1) = ln(εA,1).

Rearranging the equation, we get ln(A1 - rhoAA~1−1) - ln(A1) = ln(εA,1).

Therefore, lnA1 = ln(A0) + ln(εA,1).

Calculating the expected **values** of lnA1, lnA2, and lnA3: - Taking the expected value (E) of equation 1, we have E[ln(A1 - g1t)] = E[ln(A0 + A1)]. Since g1t is constant, we can write it as E[ln(A1)] - g1t = ln(A0 + E[A1]).

Rearranging the equation, we get E[ln(A1)] = ln(A0 + E[A1]) + g1t.

- Taking the expected value (E) of equation 2, we have E[ln(A1 - rhoAA~1−1)] = E[ln(εA,1)]. Since rhoAA~1−1 is **constant**, we can write it as E[ln(A1)] - rhoAE[A~1−1] = ln(εA,1).

Rearranging the equation, we get E[ln(A1)] = ln(εA,1) + rhoAE[A~1−1].

Therefore, the expected value of lnA1 is given by E[lnA1] = ln(A0 + E[A1]) + g1t = ln(εA,1) + rhoAE[A~1−1]. Similarly, we can calculate the expected values of lnA2 and lnA3 using the corresponding equations and constants.

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A solution contains 1.27×10 −2

M sodium sulfide and 1.35×10 −2

M potassium hydroxide. Solid iron(III) nitrate is added slowly to this mixture. What is the concentration of sulfide ion when hydroxide ion begins to precipitate? [sulfide] =

### Answers

To find the **concentration** of sulfide ion when hydroxide ion begins to precipitate, we need to determine the point at which the reaction between sodium sulfide and iron(III) nitrate produces a precipitate.

This reaction can be represented by the following balanced **equation**: Na2S(aq) + Fe(NO3)3(aq) → FeS(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) First, let's write the balanced equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and iron(III) nitrate:

3KOH(aq) + Fe(NO3)3(aq) → Fe(OH)3(s) + 3KNO3(aq)

From the balanced equation, we can see that for every 3 **moles** of potassium hydroxide (KOH), we get 1 mole of Fe(OH)3(s) precipitate.

Therefore, when hydroxide ion begins to **precipitate**, the concentration of sulfide ion will be equal to the concentration of potassium hydroxide. Given that the concentration of sodium sulfide is 1.27×10^(-2) M and the concentration of potassium hydroxide is 1.35×10^(-2) M, the concentration of sulfide ion [S^2-] at the point of precipitation is also 1.35×10^(-2) M. Therefore, the concentration of **sulfide** ion when hydroxide ion begins to precipitate is 1.35×10^(-2) M.

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list environmental factors and chemical properties that determine the rate of degradation of toxicants

### Answers

The environmental factors that influence the rate of degradation of

toxicants

include temperature, pH, humidity, and the presence of other chemicals.

Environmental factors

and chemical properties that determine the rate of degradation of toxicants are:Toxicants are substances that are toxic, poisonous, or harmful to living organisms and the environment.

The rate of degradation of toxicants is dependent on a range of environmental factors and

chemical properties

.

Temperature:

Temperature is one of the most significant environmental factors that affect the rate of degradation of toxicants. As temperature increases, the rate of degradation of toxicants increases as well. It means that the higher the temperature, the faster the degradation of toxicants will be.

PH:

The pH of the environment also plays a critical role in the rate of degradation of toxicants. The pH value of an environment can affect the solubility of the toxicant and also the efficiency of the enzymes that break down the toxicant.

Humidity:

The level of humidity in the environment can also influence the rate of degradation of toxicants. High levels of humidity can increase the rate of degradation of some toxicants, while other toxicants might require lower humidity levels .The chemical properties that influence the

rate of degradation

of toxicants include the chemical structure of the toxicant, its solubility, and its reactivity.

Some toxicants are more resistant to degradation due to their chemical structure, while others are more reactive and break down more quickly.

The rate of degradation of toxicants is also influenced by the presence of other chemicals in the environment. Certain chemicals can interact with toxicants to accelerate or hinder the degradation process.

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Using equal masses of reactants, which statement describes the relative amounts of energy released during a chemical reaction and a nuclear reaction? (1) The chemical and nuclear reactions release the same amount of energy

(2) The nuclear reaction releases half the amount of energy of the chemical reaction.

(3) The chemical reaction releases more energy of the nuclear reaction.

(4) The nuclear reaction releases more energy of the chemical reaction.

### Answers

The correct answer is option (4)

The** nuclear reaction **releases more energy of the **chemical reaction**.

What is a chemical reaction?

A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances, known as reactants, are transformed into new substances called products, using different methods such as fusion, dissolving, etc.

What is a nuclear reaction?

A nuclear reaction is a process in which the nucleus of an atom is transformed into a different nucleus or a different subatomic particle using various methods.

This can happen spontaneously, as in the case of** radioactive **decay, or it can be induced artificially.

What are energy changes?

In both nuclear and chemical reactions, energy changes occur.

Chemical reactions involve only the electrons that surround an atom's nucleus, while nuclear reactions involve the nucleus itself.

As a result, nuclear reactions can release far more energy than chemical reactions, making them particularly important for nuclear power and weapons.

A nuclear reaction releases more energy than a chemical reaction when the same quantity of reactants is used.

As a result, option (4) The nuclear reaction releases more energy of the chemical reaction. is the right option.

Thus, the correct answer is option (4).

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If the vectors

A

+

B

+

C

=0 and

A

=(4.6 m1)

x

^

+(3.8 m)

y

^

B

=(−6.8 m)

x

^

+(−6.8 m)

y

^

what is the magnitude of the vector

C

? Express your answer in metres to two decimal places. Answer:

### Answers

The **magnitude** of **vector** C is 3.72 m.

Given:

Vector A: [tex]$$\vec{A} = 4.6\hat{x} + 3.8\hat{y}$$[/tex]

Vector B: [tex]$$\vec{B} = -6.8\hat{x} - 6.8\hat{y}$$[/tex]

Vector C: [tex]$$\vec{A} + \vec{B} + \vec{C} = 0$$[/tex]

Now, let's **add** vectors A and B as follows:

$$\vec{A} + \vec{B} + \vec{C} = 0$$[tex]$$\vec{A} + \vec{B} + \vec{C} = 0$$[/tex]

[tex]$$= -2.2\hat{x} - 3.0\hat{y}$$[/tex]

Since the sum of vectors A, B and C is zero,

we can say that vector C is equal in magnitude and opposite in **direction** to vector A + B.

Now, the magnitude of vector C is given as follows:

[tex]$\therefore |\vec{C}| = |\vec{A} + \vec{B}|$$[/tex]

[tex]$$ = \sqrt{(-2.2)^2 + (-3.0)^2}$$[/tex]

[tex]$$ = \sqrt{4.84 + 9}$$[/tex]

[tex]$$ = \sqrt{13.84}$$[/tex]

[tex]$$ = 3.72 \ m \ (to \ 2 \ decimal \ places)$$[/tex]

Therefore, the magnitude of vector C is 3.72 m.

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an electric current of 5.20 A fiows for 4.25 hours through an electrolytic cell containing copper-sulfate (CuSO 4 ) 50 ution, then how much copper is deposited. e cathode (the negative electrode) of the cell? (Copper ions carry two units of positive elementary charge, and the atomic mass of copper is 63.59/ mol.) Tries 0/12

### Answers

00 × 10²¹ grams of **copper** will be deposited at the** cathode**.

Given Data:

An electric current of 5.20 A flows for 4.25 hours through an electrolytic cell containing copper-sulfate (CuSO4) 50 solution.

The **atomic mass **of copper is 63.59/ mol.

The formula of copper sulfate is CuSO4.To calculate the amount of copper deposited on the cathode, use the following formula:

Charge(Q) = Current(I) × Time(t)The quantity of electric charge(Q) is expressed in coulombs(C), and the current(I) is expressed in amperes(A), and the time(t) is expressed in seconds(s).1 hour = 3600 seconds.4.25 hours = 4.25 × 3600 = 15300 s

Charge(Q) = 5.20 A × 15300 s

Charge(Q) = 79410 C

The quantity of electric charge(Q) is equal to the amount of electrons involved in the reaction since each electron carries a charge of 1.60 × 10⁻¹⁹ C.

The number of electrons involved in the reaction is:

Number of electrons = Charge(Q) / Charge of one electron= 79410 C / 1.60 × 10⁻¹⁹ C= 4.96 × 10²² electrons

Since one copper ion contains two **electrons**, the number of copper ions involved in the reaction is:

Number of copper ions = 4.96 × 10²² / 2 = 2.48 × 10²²Copper sulfate (CuSO4) dissociates into copper (Cu²⁺) ions and sulfate (SO4²⁻) ions.CuSO4 (aq) → Cu²⁺ (aq) + SO4²⁻ (aq)

At the cathode, Cu²⁺ ions are reduced and deposited as copper metal.Cu²⁺ (aq) + 2e⁻ → Cu (s)The number of moles of copper deposited at the cathode is:

Number of **moles** = Number of copper ions × Molar mass of copper

Molar mass of copper = 63.59 g/mol.

Number of moles = 2.48 × 10²² × 63.59/1000Number of moles = 1.58 × 10²¹ moles

The mass of copper deposited at the cathode is:

Mass(m) = Number of moles × Molar mass

molar mass of copper = 63.59 g/mol

Mass(m) = 1.58 × 10²¹ × 63.59/1000Mass(m) = 1.00 × 10²¹ g

Hence, 1.00 × 10²¹ grams of copper will be deposited at the cathode.

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Determine the de-Broglie wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential difference of (i)100V ,(ii)200V

### Answers

The** de Broglie wavelength** of an** electron** accelerated through a potential difference of 100V is approximately 1.227 × 10^-10 m, and the de Broglie wavelength for a potential difference of 200V is approximately 8.672 × 10^-11 m.

To determine the de Broglie wavelength of an electron accelerated through a** potential difference**, we can use the following equation:

λ = h / √(2 * m * e * V)

where λ is the de Broglie wavelength, h is the **Planck's constant **(approximately 6.626 × 10^-34 J·s), m is the mass of the electron (approximately 9.109 × 10^-31 kg), e is the** elementary charge** (approximately 1.602 × 10^-19 C), and V is the potential difference.

Let's calculate the de Broglie wavelength for the given potential differences:

(i) For a potential difference of 100V:

λ = (6.626 × 10^-34 J·s) / √(2 * (9.109 × 10^-31 kg) * (1.602 × 10^-19 C) * (100V))

λ ≈ 1.227 × 10^-10 m

(ii) For a potential difference of 200V:

λ = (6.626 × 10^-34 J·s) / √(2 * (9.109 × 10^-31 kg) * (1.602 × 10^-19 C) * (200V))

λ ≈ 8.672 × 10^-11 m

Therefore, the de Broglie wavelength of an electron accelerated through a potential difference of 100V is approximately 1.227 × 10^-10 m, and the de Broglie wavelength for a potential difference of 200V is approximately 8.672 × 10^-11 m.

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which statement correctly compares an atom of boron-11 to an atom of carbon-14?

### Answers

The statement that correctly compares an atom of boron-11 to an atom of carbon-14 is both **boron**-11 and carbon-14 have 7 neutrons.

The statement that correctly compares an atom of boron-11 to an **atom **of carbon-14 is as follows:Both boron-11 and carbon-14 have 7 neutrons.

The comparison between an atom of boron-11 and an atom of carbon-14 is based on the number of neutrons that each has. The number of neutrons in an atom determines its mass number.

Boron-11 and carbon-14 are isotopes of the **element **boron and carbon, respectively.Boron-11 has 5 protons and 6 neutrons and carbon-14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

The difference in neutron numbers leads to the difference in mass number.

Boron-11 mass number is 11 and **carbon**-14 mass number is 14.

In this case, the statement that correctly compares an atom of boron-11 to an atom of carbon-14 is as follows:Both boron-11 and carbon-14 have 7 neutrons.

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15. Which of the following statements is correct?

a) Wear rate decreases by increasing the material hardness

b) Wear rate increases by increasing the material hardness

c) Wear rate is not dependant on the material hardness

d) None of the above

16. What type of load causes a fatigue crack initiation?

a) Impact load

b) Static permanent load

c) Dynamic cyclic load

d) Sudden compressive load

### Answers

**Fatigue **crack initiation typically occurs under dynamic cyclic loading conditions.

The correct option is:

a) Wear rate decreases by increasing the material **hardness**

Increasing the hardness of a material generally improves its resistance to wear.

Harder materials have better wear resistance because they can withstand greater forces and are less prone to surface deformation, **abrasion**, and material removal during sliding or rubbing contact.

The correct option is:

c) Dynamic cyclic load

Fatigue crack initiation typically occurs under **dynamic **cyclic loading conditions.

When a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading cycles, especially with high-stress amplitudes, it can lead to the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks over time.

The cyclic nature of the load induces progressive damage and eventual failure due to the accumulation of microstructural changes and crack growth.

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I need a quick answer 50 points!!

There are 1.2 x 1024 atoms of carbon

in a sample of aluminum acetate,

AI(C₂H3O2)3. How many moles of Al

are in the sample?

[?] moles Al

### Answers

3

**Explanation:**

the 1.2cm simplofys to 7 and cab then go to 3

Three moles of an ideal monatomic gas expands at a constant pressure of 2.50 atm; the volume of the gas changes from 3.20×10

−2

m

3

to 4.50×10

−2

m

3

. Calculate (a) the initial and final temperatures of the gas; (b) the amount of work the gas does in expanding; (c) the amount of heat added to the gas; (d) the change in internal energy of the gas.

### Answers

The change in internal **energy **of the gas is 1505.86 J.

Initial volume = V₁ = 3.20 x 10⁻² m³

Final volume = V₂ = 4.50 x 10⁻² m³

Pressure = P = 2.50 atm

Number of **moles **= n = 3 mol

Gas constant = R = 8.31 J/mol K

(a) Initial and Final Temperature

The temperature of the gas is given by the ideal gas law:PV = nRT

Initial Temperature :T₁ = PV₁/nR = (2.5 atm x 3.20 x 10⁻² m³) / (3 mol x 8.31 J/mol K) = 321.68 K

Final Temperature:T₂ = PV₂/nR = (2.5 atm x 4.50 x 10⁻² m³) / (3 mol x 8.31 J/mol K) = 458.83 K

(b) Work Done by the gasThe work done by the gas during the expansion can be calculated using the following equation:W = -P∆V

Where ∆V = V₂ - V₁W = -2.50 atm x (4.50 x 10⁻² m³ - 3.20 x 10⁻² m³) = -0.18125 J(c) Heat added to the gas

The first law of **thermodynamics **relates the change in internal energy (U) of a system to the heat added (Q) to the system and the work done (W) on the system.

∆U = Q - W

where ∆U = change in internal energy = 3/2 nR (∆T) = (3/2) x 3 mol x 8.31 J/mol K (458.83 K - 321.68 K)∆U = 1505.86 JQ = ∆U + WQ = 1505.86 J + (-0.18125 J) = 1505.67875 J(d) Change in Internal Energy

The change in internal energy of the gas can be calculated as:∆U = (3/2) nR (∆T)∆U = (3/2) x 3 mol x 8.31 J/mol K (458.83 K - 321.68 K)∆U = 1505.86 J

Therefore, the **initial** and final temperatures of the gas are 321.68 K and 458.83 K, respectively.

The work done by the gas during the expansion is -0.18125 J.The amount of heat added to the gas is 1505.67875 J.

The change in internal energy of the gas is 1505.86 J.

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Plot the electron distribution

function N(E) versus energy in metal at

T = 0 K and T = 300 K.

### Answers

The general shape of the plot will have a step-like function at T = 0 K and a smooth curve that approaches 1 as the energy approaches the **Fermi energy** at T = 300 K.

The electron **distribution function** in a metal can be described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function, which depends on temperature (T) and energy (E).

The function is given by:

N(E) = 1 / [1 + exp((E - E_F) / (k * T))]

Where:

N(E) is the electron distribution function, representing the probability of finding an electron with energy E.

E is the energy of the electron.

E_F is the Fermi energy, which represents the highest energy level occupied by electrons at absolute zero temperature.

k is the** Boltzmann** constant.

T is the temperature in Kelvin.

To plot the electron distribution function N(E) versus energy for a metal at T = 0 K and T = 300 K, we need to consider the following:

At T = 0 K:

At absolute zero temperature, all energy levels below the Fermi energy (E_F) are fully occupied, and all energy levels above E_F are unoccupied.

Thus, the electron distribution function is a step function, as shown below:

| 1 for E < E_F

N(E) = |

| 0 for E >= E_F

At T = 300 K:

At finite temperatures, the electron distribution function allows for some thermal excitation.

The occupation of energy levels above E_F increases with temperature, following the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. The distribution function becomes a smoother curve, as shown below:

N(E) = 1 / [1 + exp((E - E_F) / (k * T))]

To plot the distribution functions, we need the specific value of the Fermi energy E_F for the metal.

Without that information, we cannot provide an exact graphical representation.

However, the general shape of the plot will have a step-like function at T = 0 K and a smooth curve that approaches 1 as the energy approaches the Fermi energy at T = 300 K.

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Using the Semi-empirical Mass Formula, calculate the Binding Energy for the following:

235U, 141Ba, 92Kr

I already did uranium

### Answers

The **binding energies** for 235U, 141Ba, and 92Kr are approximately 1782.6 MeV, 1131.4 MeV, and 765.3 MeV, respectively.

To calculate the binding energy using the **Semi-empirical Mass Formula**, we need the following parameters:

Mass number (A): The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

**Atomic number** (Z): The number of protons in the nucleus.

Volume term coefficient (aV): Approximate value of 15.8 MeV.

Surface term coefficient (aS): Approximate value of 18.3 MeV.

**Coulomb term coefficient** (aC): Approximate value of 0.714 MeV.

Asymmetry term coefficient (aA): Approximate value of 23.2 MeV.

**Pairing term coefficient** (aP): Approximate value of 12.0 MeV (applies only to even-Z, even-N nuclides).

Using these parameters, we can calculate the binding energy (BE) using the formula:

BE = aV * A - aS * A^(2/3) - aC * (Z^2 / A^(1/3)) - aA * ((A - 2Z)^2 / A) + aP * (A % 2)

Let's calculate the binding energy for the following nuclei:

235U:

A = 235

Z = 92

Substituting these values into the formula, we get:

[tex]BE = 15.8 * 235 - 18.3 * 235^{\frac{2}{3}} - 0.714 * (\frac{92^2}{235^{(\frac{1}{3})}}) - 23.2 * (\frac{(235 - 2*92)^2}{235}) + 12.0 * (235 \% 2)[/tex]

BE ≈ 1782.6 MeV

141Ba:

A = 141

Z = 56

**Substituting **these values into the formula, we get:

[tex]BE = 15.8 * 141 - 18.3 * 141^{\frac{2}{3}} - 0.714 * (\frac{92^2}{141^{(\frac{1}{3})}}) - 23.2 * (\frac{(141 - 2*92)^2}{141}) + 12.0 * (141 \% 2)[/tex]

BE ≈ 1131.4 MeV.

92Kr:

A = 92

Z = 36

Substituting these values into the formula, we get:

[tex]BE = 15.8 * 92 - 18.3 * 92^{\frac{2}{3}} - 0.714 * (\frac{92^2}{92^{(\frac{1}{3})}}) - 23.2 * (\frac{(92 - 2*92)^2}{92}) + 12.0 * (92 \% 2)[/tex]

BE ≈ 765.3 MeV.

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carbon dioxide reacts with water to form _____ _____.

### Answers

The **carbon dioxide** reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3).Carbon dioxide is an odorless,** colorless gas **produced when organic matter is burned, breathed, fermented, or decayed.

Carbon dioxide is emitted into the **atmosphere** when fossil fuels are burned. It is necessary for photosynthesis in plants, and it is absorbed by the ocean, acting as a carbon sink.

CO2 (carbon dioxide) is a chemical compound that consists of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. It is a colorless, odorless gas with a slightly **acidic taste**.

Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which is represented by the following chemical equation:CO2 (carbon dioxide) + H2O (water) ⇌ H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

The reaction of carbon dioxide with water leads to the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that can further dissociate into bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+).

This reaction is an important process in various natural and** industrial systems**, such as the dissolution of carbon dioxide in oceans, the carbonation of beverages, and the regulation of blood pH in living organisms.

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23 g of copper pellets are removed from a 300∘C oven and

immediately dropped into 80 mL of water at 19 ∘C in an insulated

cup. What will the new water temperature be?

### Answers

The final water **temperature **is 90.4°C

The new water temperature after 23 g of copper pellets are removed from a 300°C oven and immediately dropped into 80 mL of water at 19°C in an **insulated **cup is 23.7°C.

Explanation : In this case, we can apply the **conservation **of heat principle which states that the amount of **heat **lost by the copper pellets is equal to the amount of heat gained by the water.

Using the formula; Heat gained = Heat lost, we can represent this as:mCΔT = mCΔT

Where m = mass, C = specific heat capacity, and ΔT = change in temperature.

For the copper pellets,

Heat lost = mCΔT= 23 g x 0.385 J/g°C x (300 - T)°C

For the water,

Heat gained = mCΔT= 80 g x 4.184 J/g°C x (T - 19)°C

Now we can equate both expressions:23 g x 0.385 J/g°C x (300 - T)°C = 80 g x 4.184 J/g°C x (T - 19)°C

Simplifying this expression yields:

69.55(300 - T) = 334.72(T - 19)69.55(300) - 69.55T

= 334.72T - 6344.4869.55(300) + 6344.48

= 404.27T36491.48

= 404.27TT

= 90.4°C

The final water temperature is 90.4°C after the copper pellets are removed from a 300°C oven and immediately dropped into 80 mL of water at 19°C in an insulated cup.

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a 0.135 g sample of a monoprotic acid of unknown molar mass is dissolved in water and titrated with 0.1003 m naoh. the equivalence point is reached after adding 21.36 ml of base.

Part A

What is the molar mass of the unknown acid?

Molar mass =g/mol

### Answers

The **molar **mass of the unknown acid is 150 g/mol.

Mass of acid (m) = 0.135 g

**Volume **of NaOH = 21.36 mL = 0.02136 L

Concentration of NaOH (c) = 0.1003 M

The balanced equation is:Acid + NaOH → NaSalt + Water

Molar mass of the unknown acid can be calculated by using the formula;molar mass of acid = (mass of acid used × molar mass of NaOH × volume of NaOH used) / (number of hydrogen ions × 1000)

Mass of NaOH = Concentration × volume = 0.1003 × 0.02136 = 0.002145 mol

Mass of acid used = 0.135 g

Molar mass of **NaOH **= 40 g/mol

Number of hydrogen ion = 1

Volume of NaOH used = 21.36 mL = 21.36/1000 = 0.02136 L

Molar **mass** of acid = (0.135 × 40 × 0.002145) / (1 × 0.02136)

Molar mass of acid = 149.97 g/mol ≈ 150 g/mol

Therefore, the molar mass of the unknown acid is 150 g/mol.

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Determine the dimensions of 7 . which is the viscosity of a liquid, by performing dimensional analysis of the following equation. F=2πrL

R

v

, eetc F is force (Kgm/s

2

) r is radius (m) L is length (m) v is speed (m/s) R is distance (m)

### Answers

The dimensions of **viscosity **are kilograms per meter per second (kg/(m·s)).

To determine the dimensions of viscosity (symbolized as η), we can perform **dimensional **analysis on the given equation:

F = 2πrL / Rv

Breaking down the dimensions of each variable:

F: Force, [M][L][T]⁻²

r: Radius, [L]

L: Length, [L]

R: Distance, [L]

v: Speed, [L][T]⁻¹

Substituting the dimensions into the equation:

[M][L][T]⁻² = 2π[L][L][L] / [L][L][T]⁻¹ * η

Simplifying the equation:

[M][L][T]⁻² = 2π[L]⁴[T] * η

Equating the dimensions on both sides of the equation:

[M] = 2π[L]³[T]² * η

From this equation, we can see that the **dimensions **of viscosity (η) are:

[η] = [M][L]⁻¹[T]⁻¹

Therefore, the dimensions of viscosity are kilograms per meter per second (kg/(m·s)).

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Suppose that in one year a country produces 2.92×10

11

kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electrical energy from 4088 hydroelectric plants (1.00kWh=3.60×10

6

J). On average, each plant is 90.0% efficient at converting mechanical energy to electrical energy, and the average dam height is 50.0 m. At 2.92×10

11

kWh of electrical energy produced in one year, what is the average power output P

avg

per P

avg

= hydroelectric plant? What total mass of water m flowed over the dams during that year? m= What was the average mass of water m

avg

per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate the electricity? m

avg

= What was the average volume of water V

avg

per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate the electricity? (The density of water is 1000 kg/m

3

.) V

avg

= m

3

A gallon of gasoline contains 4.50×10

7

J of energy. How many gallons n of gasoline did the 4088 dams save? n= galSuppose that in one year a country produces 2.92×10

11

kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electrical energy from 4088 hydroelectric plants (1.00kWh=3.60×10

6

J). On average, each plant is 90.0% efficient at converting mechanical energy to electrical energy, and the average dam height is 50.0 m. At 2.92×10

11

kWh of electrical energy produced in one year, what is the average power output P

avg

per P

avg

= hydroelectric plant? What total mass of water m flowed over the dams during that year? m= What was the average mass of water m

avg

per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate the electricity? m

avg

= What was the average volume of water V

avg

per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate the electricity? (The density of water is 1000 kg/m

3

.) V

avg

= m

3

A gallon of gasoline contains 4.50×10

7

J of energy. How many gallons n of gasoline did the 4088 dams save? n= gal

### Answers

Part 1:Average power output per** hydroelectric plant **is 3.33 × 10^10 W. Part 2:Total **mass** of water flowed over the dams during that year is 2.41 × 10^13 kg. Part 3:Average mass of water per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate electricity is 5.90 × 10^9 kg/dam. Part 4:Average volume of water per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate electricity is 5.90 × 10^6 m³/dam.\ Part 5:Number of gallons of gasoline saved is 2.71 × 10^6 gallons.

Given data:

Total electrical energy generated by the hydroelectric plant = 2.92 × 10^11 kWh

Number of Hydroelectric Plants = 4088

Efficiency of each hydroelectric plant = 90% = 0.9

Dam** height** = 50.0 m

Density of water = 1000 kg/m³

**Energy **obtained per 1 kWh = 3.60 × 10^6 J

Conversion:1 kWh = 3.60 × 10^6 J

Part 1:Average power output per hydroelectric plant is given by;

Average Power = Total energy produced / TimeTotal Energy produced = 2.92 × 10^11 kWh × (3.60 × 10^6 J / 1 kWh)

Total Energy produced = 1.0512 × 10^18 J

Time = 365 days × 24 hours/day × 3600 seconds/hour

Time = 3.1536 × 10^7 s

Average Power = (1.0512 × 10^18 J) / (3.1536 × 10^7 s)

Average Power = 3.33 × 10^10 W

Part 2:

Total mass of water flowed over the dams during that year = (Energy produced / (Gravity × height of the dam × efficiency)) / Density

Energy produced = 2.92 × 10^11 kWh × (3.60 × 10^6 J / 1 kWh) = 1.0512 × 10^18 J

Density of water = 1000 kg/m³

Gravity = 9.8 m/s²

Height of the dam = 50.0 m

Efficiency = 0.9

Total mass of water flowed over the dams during that year = [(1.0512 × 10^18 J) / (9.8 m/s² × 50.0 m × 0.9)] / 1000 kg/m

³Total mass of water flowed over the dams during that year = 2.41 × 10^13 kg

Part 3:Average mass of water per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate electricity = Total mass of water flowed over the dams / Number of hydroelectric plants

Average mass of water per dam = (2.41 × 10^13 kg) / 4088Average mass of water per dam = 5.90 × 10^9 kg/dam

Part 4:Average volume of water per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate electricity = (Average mass of water per dam) / (Density of water)Average volume of water per dam = (5.90 × 10^9 kg/dam) / (1000 kg/m³)Average volume of water per dam = 5.90 × 10^6 m³/dam

Part 5:Energy contained in 1 gallon of gasoline = 4.50 × 10^7 J

Energy contained in the hydroelectric plant = (Energy contained in 1 gallon of gasoline) × (Number of gallons of gasoline saved)Energy contained in 1 gallon of gasoline = Energy produced / efficiency

Number of gallons of gasoline saved = (Energy produced / efficiency) / Energy contained in 1 gallon of gasoline

Number of gallons of** gasoline **saved = (2.92 × 10^11 kWh × 3.60 × 10^6 J / kWh) / (0.9 × 4.50 × 10^7 J)

Number of gallons of gasoline saved = 2.71 × 10^6 gallons

Therefore, the answer is

Part 1:Average power output per hydroelectric plant is 3.33 × 10^10 W.

Part 2:Total mass of water flowed over the dams during that year is 2.41 × 10^13 kg

.Part 3:Average mass of water per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate electricity is 5.90 × 10^9 kg/dam.

Part 4:Average volume of water per dam that provided the mechanical energy to generate electricity is 5.90 × 10^6 m³/dam.

Part 5:Number of gallons of gasoline saved is 2.71 × 10^6 gallons.

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When you expose beer to light, you get MBT, which has the aroma of what?

a) Banana

b) Coffee

c) Skunk

d) Caramel

### Answers

When beer is exposed to light, it causes a chemical reaction that produces a compound called MBT, which has a skunky aroma. The correct option is** c) Skunk.**

MBT, or 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, is a compound produced when light reacts with is **humulones **in hops, which are used to give beer its bitterness. This **reaction **can occur in as little as a few minutes of exposure to light, and it can lead to a noticeable skunky smell and flavor in beer.Exposure to light can also affect the taste and aroma of other **beverages**, such as wine and some spirits. Coffee is not typically affected by light in the same way, but it can lose its freshness and flavor if not stored properly. When coffee is exposed to air, it can oxidize and become stale, so it's important to store it in an airtight container in a cool, dark place.

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Aspirin synthesis is an example of which of the following types of reactions? Acidification Basification Acylation . Etherification

### Answers

**Aspirin synthesis** is an example of an acylation reaction.

Aspirin synthesis, also known as acetylsalicylic acid synthesis, is the process of chemically producing aspirin, a widely used medication known for its **analgesic **(pain-relieving), anti-inflammatory, and **antipyretic **(fever-reducing) properties.

**Acylation** involves the introduction of an acyl group into a molecule. In the case of aspirin synthesis, salicylic acid reacts with acetic anhydride (or acetyl chloride) in the presence of an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid. The **acyl group** ([tex]-COCH_3[/tex]) from the acetic anhydride is transferred to the hydroxyl group (-OH) of salicylic acid, forming **acetylsalicylic acid**, which is the chemical name for aspirin.

Therefore, the synthesis of aspirin involves an acylation reaction where an acyl group is added to a **molecule**.

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Given the following 3D diagram (assume all coordinates are given in cm ) of beam AB, find the reactions at A if the beam is at equilibrium. Assume F

1

is 200 N in the -y direction, F

2

is 300 N, and F

2

follows the line of action created by line BD

### Answers

The reactions at A are 152.43 N at point A in the -**x direction**, 64.04 N at point A in the -z direction, and -382.43 N at point A in the** -y direction**.

Given a 3D diagram of beam AB, where the forces F1 and F2 are acting on it. F1 has a **magnitude **of 200 N and acts in the -y direction, whereas F2 has a magnitude of 300 N and follows the line of action created by line BD. The task is to find the reactions at point A if the beam is at equilibrium.The equilibrium of the beam can be understood by the principle of moments and equilibrium. Taking moments of the forces about point A and equating them to zero, we can find the reactions at A. Therefore, we can resolve the **forces **along the x, y, and z-axis to find the reactions at A.Let the reaction at A in the x-axis be Rax, at y-axis be Ray, and at the z-axis be Raz.

**Moments of forces** about point A would be:

300 * cos 45° * 5 - 200 * 2 = 5 Rax + 3 Razz component of the force F2 would be:

300 * sin 45° = 212.13 N

Using the equilibrium of forces equation, we get:

Rax = 152.43 N Ray = -382.43 N Raz = 64.04 N

The reactions at A are 152.43 N at point A in the -x direction, 64.04 N at point A in the -z direction, and -382.43 N at point A in the -y direction.

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Use the worked example above to help you solve this problem. The half-life of the radioactive nucleus 86 26 Ra is 1.6×10 ^{3}

yr. If a sample initially contains 3.90×10 ^{16} such nuclei, determine the following: (a) the initial activity in curies μCl (b) the number of radium nuclei remaining after 4.0×10 ^{3}yr nuclel (c) the activity at this later time μCl (a) Find the number of remaining radium nuclei after 3.30×10 ^{3} yr. N= nuclei (b) Find the activity at this time. R= μCl

### Answers

The number of remaining **radium **nuclei after 3.30 × 103 yr is N=N_0e^{kt}=3.90×10^{16}e^{-4.33125×10^{-4}yr^{-1}\cdot 3.30×10^3yr}=1.53×10^{16}

The half-life of 86R a is 1.6 × 103 yr. If a sample initially contains 3.90 × 1016 such nuclei, the number of remaining radium nuclei after 4.0 × 103 yr nuclel is 1.3 × 1016 nuclei.

The **initial **activity in curies μCl is 1.05 × 1010 μCi and the activity at this later time is 3.5 × 109 μCi.

(a) The initial activity in curies μC

lActivity is defined as:R=\frac{dN}{dt}-\frac{dN}{dt}=kN N=N_0e^{-kt}\frac{N}{N_0}=e^{-kt}k=\frac{0.693}{t_{1/2}}=\frac{0.693}{1.6×10^3}=4.33125×10^{-4}yr^{-1}

Therefore, N=N_0e^{-kt}=3.90×10^{16}e^{-4.33125×10^{-4}yr^{-1}\cdot 0}=3.90×10^{16}

The curie is defined as the activity of 1 gram of 226Ra (3.7×1010 decays/s). We find the initial activity to be:

R=\frac{dN}{dt}=-\frac{dN_0}{dt}=-kN_0 R=4.33125×10^{-4}yr^{-1}\cdot 3.90×10^{16}=1.687×10^{13}Bq=1.05×10^{10}μCi

(b) The number of radium **nuclei **remaining after 4.0×103 yr nuclel

The number of remaining radium nuclei is:$$N=N_0e^{-kt}=3.90×10^{16}e^{-4.33125×10^{-4}yr^{-1}\cdot 4.0×10^3yr}=1.30×10^{16}

(c) The activity at this later time μClThe activity is:

R=\frac{dN}{dt}=-\frac{dN_0}{dt}=-kN_0 R=4.33125×10^{-4}yr^{-1}\cdot 1.30×10^{16}=5.6345×10^9Bq=3.5×10^9μCi

Therefore, the **number** of remaining radium nuclei after 3.30 × 103 yr is N=N_0e^{kt}=3.90×10^{16}e^{-4.33125×10^{-4}yr^{-1}\cdot 3.30×10^3yr}=1.53×10^{16}

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